A: Use the disavow file and use domains as much as possible not each link individually.
My Thoughts: This can be a real pain when there are hundreds a day, just goes to show how negative SEO can effect your business.
A: They are Google Plus and are not related to websearch
My Thoughts: Recently it has been shown that there is a mixture of local and organic and that generally the top 3 results are organic. Here is a great article by Linda Buquet a Top Contributor from Google help forums
A: Lots of sites offer great content but do things wrong this is not a reason Google wants to use to effect rankings.
My Thoughts: This is good to hear as it has been a long standing debate.
A: If your moving from one domain to another, include a disavow file for both domains.
My Thoughts: Bad links are transferred to redirected domains so you have to resolve any unnatural link issue you have on your old domain to avoid it passing over to the new one.
A: No there is no SEO advantage
A: No there is no ranking boost for using authorship at all.
My Thoughts: Some sites just have no need for authorship however it may become a raning factor in the future.
A: You can update it once a day if you really want to.
My Thoughts: No real answer to this question. As we have no idea how quickly links can negatively effect a site.
A: NO, they may be ranking because of other factors. If they are doing something really bad you can send in a spam report
My Thoughts: Google is bad at detecting lots of things like this and forces many to craete content for the sake of it until the algorithm is clever enough.
A: John says we should report things and others are best left to the next algorithm update.
My Thoughts: The problem with waiting for the next algorithm update is that by then a new tactic is used by spammers and they do not care about the fix made to block their other rankings.
A: It IS possible, but it depends on the type of site, but generally if you have a great site then it would be weird that you have no links and Google would notice that after maybe a year.
My Thoughts: Google always talks about great content, if you build it they will come. This is true but is not always easy. Which only encourages people to take on tactics to link build that are some what grey hat.
A: NoFollow links do not pass pagerank so they would not be used to increase that sites rankings.
My Thoughts: It seems to me that very few links as a ratio would be DoFollow and therefore very few DoFollow links would be needed to rank well.
A: John says NO, but would not use it to connect hundreds of sites.
My Thoughts: This is interesting as this has been a highly contested debate for a long time.
A: If it works for your users and you are doing it for that reason then it should be fine, issues like this should not be picked up by an algorithm however.
My Thoughts: This is an issue that Top Contributors say the opposite to what John says and another good reason why the Webmaster Forum can be a poor place to look for help.
A: One day or two is acceptable and indiviual pages will start to drop, but it can recover quickly as well.
My Thoughts: So if a site is down a long time it seems that it will not be a problem once any issues you have are sorted out. It is unclear if there are any longer lasting effects such as a quality score of some kind that gets devalued.
A: You need to wait for the Penguin algorithm update to be pushed so that your site is put back in the index without a penalty associated with it.
My Thoughts: This point is not made often enough in regards to Penguin as for many it is the main reason why their site has not recovered. they just need to be patient and wait for the next Penguin refresh.
A: John is Not sure, but it is not a large amount com pared to the amount of people that need help.
My Thoughts: There are not enough actual Google Employees and too much is left to be handled by Top Contributors that are often rude or ill informed.
A: No, the answer is inaudible.
My Thoughts: I will contact John to fond the answer again, if anyone knows please send me a message.